Causes of Lower Back Pain

There are so many different causes of lower back pain, it is common that this pain is cause by overuse or acute injury such as lifting, bending or twisting the wrong way but the most common reason is the natural aging of the spine and us not taking proper care of sitting posture, at home and especially at work where we have to sit in a single position for longer hours, we can have a look at the detail analysis of lower back pain.

Sprains And Strains:
A sprain is stretching of the ligaments, the tissue which connects the two bones together within the joints. A strain is a stretching or tearing in the muscles or tendons. The sprains and strains cause sharp pain which is relentless.

Over activity or hyper activity is one of the major causes of back pain, over-activity can be a serious issue as it can have lasting or even permanent damage on our backs. The stiffness and pain caused by over-activity generally resolves itself within a few days. Something which is related to this is disc tear, the small gashes can be extremely painful and damaging as well.

Disc Herniation
This is the medical term for slipped disk, when the disc leaves its natural place, disc herniation is may be the result of lifting, bending, twisting or pulling movements.

Disc Degeneration
Disc degeneration is part of the natural aging and causes the spinal discs to shrink.

These are some of the most obvious, common and known reasons of lower back pain, since I was looking for answers online about lower back pain and wanted to do something about it, excellent article by Sandro LaRocca at helped me realize that it is important to first learn more about the things which cause lower back pain.


A Box of Surprises: The Most Surprising Benefits of Kratom

We all know that most supplements are just marketing hype, but this ancestral plant is worth talking about.

It has been used for thousands of years, and now it’s flooding the West thanks to its mind-blowing benefits. And you are invited to discover the most important ones in this article.

Mind Benefits:
The great majority of benefits revolve around the mind. And well, there are many which are worth taking into account.

If you have problems focusing, then you should give it a try. Because it will give your mind exactly what you need, but I’m talking about great kratom like the one you can buy at Kratom Sensation.

If you want to be more creative, then it can also help you. The same is valid if you want to get rid of your brain fog. Many persons have to struggle with this brain fog, but now you can get rid of it.

If you feel constantly annoyed and bad, then all you need to do is to give it a try. It has been proven to improve the mood very well. So if you want to feel happier, then all you need to do is to try it.

So if you want to make your mind far more powerful and therefore obtain more opportunities in your life, then all you need to do is to try kratom. It will really make a difference in your life.

The Pain:
Finally, it can be a good thing when treating pain. If you feel like it’s driving you mad and you cannot stop it, then you should use kratom.

This will make things easier for you, so all you need to do is to try it and experience the difference. Go for it.


The Best Treatment For Younger Children

When you have a child, your entire world begins to change. You start seeing things in a completely different light and begin to realize that there are definitely things that are more important than yourself. One of the things that you would be particularly worried about when you have a child is keeping it healthy, and this can be a problem because we live in a time where medicine has become an industry so it is not uncommon for doctors to prescribe things we don’t need so that they can earn money through commissions.

This is not that big a deal for adults, but for kids it can be disastrous because unnecessary medicines are the cause of some serious side effects that can end up giving them enormous health problems in the long run. While this by no measure means that you should avoid modern medicine and go for pseudoscience instead, you should try your best to go for a natural remedy if your child is not already ill. If we are talking about prevention rather than treatment, one of the best branches of medicine to go for is osteopathy. While not suitable for infants, when your child reaches an age where injuries become common you can start taking them to see an osteopath who can keep an eye on their overall health and help them stay healthy for as long as possible.

An osteopath Bondi Junction is also really useful for parents whose child has been born with some kind of physical disability. Osteopaths can help you keep your child safe from unnecessary injury without having to take medicine, leaving that as an option if a child actually ends up falling ill. Bear in mind, though, that if your child falls sick medicine is your only option!


Choosing a Yoga Program? Here Are Some Tips to Help You

For anyone who wants to try their hand at yoga, but doesn’t want to pay monthly fee to a trainer, choosing a yoga program is actually a smart idea. However, you need to keep in mind that choosing a yoga program may not be as easy as possible. This is mainly because for every good, and certified yoga program, there is a mediocre yoga program that isn’t certified.

Trying Fitness is not a bad thing to do, just make sure that you’re doing it right. For anyone who’s willing to choose a yoga program, there are some tips that we would suggest following. Going with these tips will only help you have an overall better experience, and will make you go for a yoga program that is actually good enough, and not created by some amateur.

So, without further ado, let’s take a look at some of the tips, shall we?

Choose a Yoga Program That’s Certified
If you want to have a positive experience with the yoga program, make sure that the program that you’re going for is fully certified by the Yoga-Alliance. This means that they approve of every single exercise that is given in the program; making your job a lot easier, and saving you from wondering whether or not should you go for a particular yoga service.

Assign Some Hours to Yoga
Next thing you need to do is making sure that you assign some hours of your life to yoga, now in case you are wondering, this is really important because you will be able to successfully practice yoga, as well as the instructions that are given in the program. Make sure that you choose the hours in which you aren’t really exhausted or it’ll compromise everything.


There’s a Massage For Every Discomfort

Massages have always been the ultimate leisurely experiences and have been given throughout our history; back then these massages were reserved for only the most elite and royalty but nowadays, they’re available to just about anyone who wants them. Since they’ve been in practice for centuries and all over the world, there are so many techniques that have different benefits.

To get the most out of a massage, you need to speak with a therapist with enough experience and knowledge about all these ancient stress relieving techniques; Calming Touch Massage is one of the most popular massage centres in Salt Lake City, Utah and is run by Soni Marian, a therapist with over 17 years of experience in providing the best massages. Calming Touch Massages has had thousands of satisfied clients who would be more than happy to recommend their services to their peers. Here are some of the services offered at Calming Touch Massages.

Swedish Massage
This is one of the more popular kinds of massages practiced by therapists all over the word today. This massage involves the use of long strokes to regulate blood circulation and relax the client.

Injury Massage
As the name might suggest, this kind of massage helps you recover from the stiffness you feel after an injury. When an injury leaves you feeling sore, it creates imbalances in your body, which this massage can tease out.

Orthopaedic Massage
This massage focuses around reliving joint pains and restoring the proper function of your joints. The tissue around your joints can get scarred over time, this therapy will reset your tissue to where it should rest.

Deep Tissue Massage
This massage targets stresses and discomforts embedded deeper within the layers of your muscles. This massage targets more powerful imbalances and corrects them.


Things To Do Before a Checkup at Your Dentist’s Office

The most dreaded visits in life are when you go visit your dentist because a visit to your dentist involves anxiously waiting for a long period of time, your dentist shoving different appliances in your mouth, scolding you for not flossing and brushing, trying to make small talk while you have different things in your mouth and you cannot speak and God forbid you have some kind of issue with your teeth or gums, you will have to go through different treatments which are often uncomfortable and pain and lastly, often involve injections straight to the gums.

Due to above mentioned reasons; many people have a real fear of going to the dentist and often end up not going at all. If you want to avoid such horrific experiences then you can check out Mint St Dental near Perth, Australia. The clinic is well equipped to deal with all sorts of problems and aims to provide a relaxing environment to the patients to make their experience better. If you have any queries then you should visit their website and fill out the form available for such purposes.

If you are about to visit your dentist soon and are dreading it then here a couple of things that you can do which will make you feel better.

Floss And Brush

Before your appointment, make sure to floss and brush your teeth properly. If you want to avoid a scolding then we suggest that you floss and brush according to your dentist’s instructions.

Listen to Relaxing Music

If you hate going to the dentist then we recommend that you listen to some relaxing music to calm your nerves down.

Kill Time

Take a book or something else along with you to kill your time in the waiting room.


This Is Why You Can’t Get Ripped And Never Will

Allow me to ask if your case fits in any of these scenarios:

1. Do you work out yet feel like you don’t burn much fat?
2. Do you spend a lot of time working yet you can’t make your muscles grow?
3. Do you work out yet you don’t feel better at all?
4. Feel like you are simply wasting your time?

If it’s you, then you need to read this blog post. Because here you will find the answers you have been looking for.

We all know that it’s hard to get ripped, and it’s especially hard if you don’t PLAN. That’s it.

The absence of a good plan is going to make you fail all the time. But it goes beyond that, because even if you have a plan but it’s the wrong one, then you will fail as well.

If your priority is to lose weight and set the foundation necessary for steady and sustained fat loss, then click here. But if your priority is to gain muscle mass, then you need to follow a plan that helps you with that.

The same goes for strength. If you want to grow stronger, then you need to follow a plan that attacks that issue. And the same goes for those who need to increase their muscular power.

A plan is all you need to succeed on this. Without a proper plan you will never get what you are looking for, and you should know this from now.

Without a plan you will always feel lost, and without the right one, you will never get the results you want.

Be careful when picking your plan and make sure it’s been designed to meet your own goals, just do it.


The Pros And Cons of ZetaClear

ZetaClear is an all-natural, topical solution for toe nail fungal growths. The following is a summary of the original post from HBR about the effectiveness of ZetaClear as well as its pros and cons, but before we can get into the merits and demerits of the solution, let’s first talk a little bit about toe nail fungus and why it forms.

Toe nail fungus is what can happen to you if your feet are wet and in an enclosed space (your shoe). To prevent the fungus from forming, you basically need to make sure that your feet are dry and if you’re going to be sitting somewhere for a while, you should remove your shoes to keep them from sweating too much and eventually developing fungus. ZetaClear can help you not only cure toenail fungus but also in preventing it from forming again. Now, here’s a list of pros and cons about ZetaClear.


-ZetaClear is made using FDA approved natural oils from almonds, tea tree, jojoba and vitamin E. These oils have anti-fungal properties and are good for the health of your skin. Using them all in one solution can keep your feet fungus free and healthy.

-It’s a 2 in 1 treatment system that includes a topical solution that you have to apply and a mouth spray that will treat the affected area through your bloodstream, making ZetaClear a complete inside out treatment.

-No reported side effects since there are no chemicals used in the making of ZetaClear.

-Offers long term effects, assuring you that your fungal problems will be taken care of for good.


-A bit pricey, compared to other anti-fungal creams and sprays but since ZetaClear is a 2 step process, it’s worth the price.

-Since the ingredients are natural, the effects can take up to 4 weeks to start showing but they are guaranteed.


Why Should You Lose Weight? A Brief Explanation

What’s even more worrying that the uprising rates of obesity around the world is that there are some social movements – primarily of feminist cut – which try to make us think that being fat is something we SHOULD accept.

What a craziness, right? It’s a mental sickness to think that way. It’s strong what I’m saying, but being fat is something you should NOT accept, because it’s not the real you.

You Will Feel Better About Yourself:
If you really want to feel good about yourself, then losing weight is something you must do. If you want to improve your mood and make yourself look better, then you need to start working on it.

And you don’t need much, just a good diet and a good workout and that’s it. Regarding your diet you only have to eat natural as often as you can and workout with one of these machines from this the link is

That’s the way to go. And if you accompany this with a good workout with kettlebells, then the results will be even more impressing, so that’s it.

You Will Be Healthier:
It’s a truth that if you lose weight, then you will be healthier. Your body will work in a much better and faster way, so you can feel better. This will benefit all the organs in your body, and you should know it from now.

Life Will Be Easier:
And finally, your life will be easier. If you can feel better about yourself, be healthier and have more energy, then you will have a much easier time in your life. Because you will be able to cope with problems in a better and more effective fashion.

That’s what you need to do. This is your life now.


Relaxing At Home Was Never Easier Ever Before

One of the things you need to know is that relaxing at home is something you have to do. Your home is your own sanctuary, therefore, you need to have the opportunity to relax and find peace within it. Here you will find a short yet effective guide which will give you the information you need.

You don’t need to spend a lot of money in order to get something that’s free. Relaxation is your right, but only if you claim it. And you don’t need to travel anywhere else to get it, because it shall be found in your own home if you want to.

Finding The Peace at Home

One of the most important things here is that you need to find a spot at home where you shall meditate and relax without being disturbed by anyone. You have to take that into account.

Well, you’ll want to look at these, because these tools are going to be a very nice addition to the environment you are building. If you really want to make your home a good place to be, then here you have the tools to make it happen. You will need them, take it for granted.

But why? Because a foot spa is all you need to feel fully relaxed. You need to find the peace at your home, and you need to do it now. So what are you waiting for? It’s time for you to go ahead and finally find it at home.

You have the knowledge and how to get the tools necessary to make this dream become a reality. You are just sitting down, so, it’s time to take action, because that place of relaxation won’t build itself, so take action right now.


Combating Back Pain: Some Great Tips to Help You

It’s not uncommon to hear of people struggling with back pain. This affection has been getting more and more common with the pass of the time, and it’s all due to our bad habits we have developed in these modern times, but let’s talk less about the problems and more about the solutitons.

Get a Good Ergonomic Chair:

If you have an office job and want to combat this pain – and even if you work at home – then you need to get a pretty good ergonomic office chair for back pain. Because you need to combat this pain, and this chair is going to do a lot for you.

Look at this as an investment, because in return you will feel much better as a consequence of relieving your pain. Give it a try, you won’t be disappointed not even a little bit.


There are many people who can spend many hours – sometimes up to 8 – without standing up, and that’s one of the worst things you can do.

If you want to improve your health and make you feel better, then you need to stand up and walk every hour. For every hour worked, give yourself the chance to stand up and walk for 5-10 minutes. This little fix will do wonders for your health.

Maybe you think we are not serious about this, but something as simple and practical as this will do wonders for relieving your back pain.

Work out:

You don’t need to be a beast at the gym, but by working out with kettlebells with a certified instructor you can do wonders for your back pain, because it’s proven that these artifacts do wonders for this type of ailment, so you should give it a try.


Meditation: Does It Have Any Benefit For Your Life?

People talk about it in magazines, blogs, different websites, TV and more. But is it really useful? Can it add any kind of benefit to your life? You are about to discover if it’s all a lie or if it holds some degree of truth.

It’s Not Overrated:
Some people say that it’s overrated, but it’s not true. If you start practicing Meditation, then you will soon discover that it’s not overrated at all. It’s going to bring your mind all the tools and resources necessary for you to take it to the next level.

For real, it’s going to relax you to the maximum point, and fill your mind with clarity and focus, which is pretty much all you need to become a better human being. If you would like to obtain such an advantage, then you should start meditating.

The Great Gift:
Well, now it’s about time to talk about how much it can help you in your daily life. Chances are you have already noticed how useful it is, but now it’s time to show you the real great gift it can bring to your life.

It will free your mind from the noxious power of stress and worry. If you really want to feel better and more capable, then you need to release the stress and worry that possess your mind, and meditation is the perfect way to do it.

So as you can see it’s a great gift you have. And on top of that, it’s going to make you think faster and clearer. Do you really see how much it can help you? If you can think faster and better, then for sure it’s going to help you quite a lot in different aspects of your life.


List Of The Best Available Water Softeners Available In The Market

It is good to remember that there are various types, models and brands of water softeners. We have provided information about some of them down below. So without keeping you waiting further, let us have a look.If you wish to obtain information on water softeners, you can get it on the website

Flek 5600 sxt Water Softener

Flek is a pretty well-known company when it comes to residential water softeners. This particular model is great as it uses the ion exchange process which ends up removing the calcium and magnesium ions from the water. The removal of these ions makes the water soft and increases the life of your utensils and improves human health. The brine tank is pretty huge i.e. it can handle 250 lbs. of pelleted salt and that is why this model is perfect for a family of more than 3. The poly class is pretty tough and the device comes with a 10 year warranty and 5 years for the top part which houses the LED which makes programming and customizing the device easy.

Eddy Electronic Water Softener

If we will be honest, this particular one is our favorite water softener. Do you want to know why? Well then continue reading the article! Unlike traditional water softeners which use ion exchange methods to soft the water, this one uses electromagnetic waves which decrease the intensity of the ions. Since it uses electromagnet waves, it does not require any kind of pelleted salts, maintenance etc. Another attractive feature about this model is that it does not cost much. Secondly, as it does not use the traditional technology, it is pretty good for the environment. The only problem is that it should be used for intensely hard water.


The Benefits of Probiotics

For those of you who are not aware of what it is and what it does, a probiotic is basically bacteria that has been extracted from fermented foods, like yogurt, and is then administered to humans through supplement capsules. The probiotics travel within the human body and start working to making the human being healthier. Many people have an issue with the fact that the probiotic is basically living bacteria that they are swallowing; however it should not be much of a concern as our body is almost filled with good and bad bacteria. A good probiotic like mega spore biotics supply the good bacteria to make sure we stay healthy.

Probiotics are generally thought be great for humans and have many benefits to them being taken. They can be used to treat many different problems within the human body. We will go on to discuss a few of the benefits. First there is the fact that it can help fix and speed up the workings of the digestive system of a person. If a person has issues with their stomach, then the probiotic can be helpful in fixing the problem too. It is a great way to get rid of gastric distress of any kind. Absorbing food more efficiently, the probiotic can help you feel healthier once regularly used. The next use is that it is a great thing to have if a person is aiming to lose some weight. The bacteria within the probiotic can also help you burn stored fat and carbs faster as it both affects your metabolism and also reduces your appetite as it affects the leptin hormone, which regulates hunger. Lastly it can also reduce skin inflammations and also help ease other skin conditions that people have, if the right probiotic is used.


Anxiety & Peripheral Neuropathy

Our body consists of nerves and these nerves connects different parts of our body to our brain. So, every time we experience pain in a specific part of our body, it is because of our nerves that this is signal is relayed to the brain, invoking the stressed response. So, any damage to our nerves can have a major impact on us in several different ways. So, neuropathy is the problem of nerve damage which causes us different types of pain in the affected area.

Peripheral neuropathy is a condition where your nerves are damaged and this can be due to multiple factors like alcoholism, thyroid issue, autoimmune diseases, hereditary diseases etc. The most common peripheral neuropathy symptoms include cramping, feelings of pins and needles in the limbs, numbness etc. However, if you want to find out more information regarding peripheral neuropathy, you can visit

A lot of people tend to associate anxiety with peripheral neuropathy, however that is not the case. Peripheral neuropathy is causes by nerve damage and anxiety is not known to cause nerve damage, rather it is just a problem of ‘nerves’ in general. Stress and anxiety have been speculated to lead to possible nerve problems but not to cause extensive damage to the nerves.

This mistake is normally made by people because they tend share their symptomology to quite an extent. Anxiety is also known to cause feelings on numbness, tingling, or a ‘paralyzing’ feeling in different parts of the body but that does not link it to peripheral neuropathy in any way.

So if you ever feel like you might have at least three of the symptoms or more then you should consider going to the doctor by looking up ones near you, also always ask for a second opinion or for more information, you can visit


What is a Waist Trainer, How Does it Work And What People Say About it?

If you’re on social media and follow a couple of celebrities (The Kardashian family, Jessica Alba, Lindsay Lohan and more) then you would have heard about waist trainers. They are also known as corsets, which was the term used in earlier times.

Detail of Waist Trainers
A waist trainer is a garment which is used as an equipment to give a woman an hourglass body shape. An hourglass body shape refers to a tiny waist and curvy hips and breasts. The use of a waist trainer makes women look thinner, especially in the problem area which is the abdomen. It is to trigger fat loss, strengthen abdomen muscles and permanently give women an hourglass figure but there is no scientific proof for that.

Wearing a Waist Trainer
A waist trainer is worn underneath clothing. Some corsets are laced up from the back easily while others have hooks and buttons to fix and adjust. Waist trainers come in all sizes for every woman, though most women choose to buy tight ones to make their stomach super flat. You can easily get more information about waist trainers on this site

Feedback on Waist Trainers
These feedbacks are from common women, not celebrities or health professionals. The most common feedback that women give regarding wearing a waist trainer is that it is quite uncomfortable. It is also reported that the diet of the women who wear it all the time gets decreased as they are not able to get much food in their stomach because it is being pushed inside the corset. As we mentioned above, the effectiveness of waist trainers is quite controversial but we see how many women rave about while others do not support it.


Tips on How to Treat Diabetes Naturally

You don’t have to treat yourself exclusively with drugs in order to obtain important advances in your battle against diabetes. Even though following a traditional treatment supplied and supervised by your doctor is ideal, you also need to treat it on your own.

Treating It on Your Own For Better Results:
If you want to boost the results of this traditional treatment you want to follow, then you need to read, because thanks to this you will relieve the pain from diabetes. We know it can hurt badly, but now you will solve it.

You need to start by changing your diet. If you keep eating unhealthy food, then you won’t improve. Your pain from diabetes will simply increase and this won’t be nice for you. Your diet needs to be ideal in order to reduce this pain and live a better life.

The pain from diabetes can be severely reduced if you follow a keto diet. You need to talk with your doctor about this, but many people agree that a keto diet works very well for people who suffer of diabetes.

If you really want to bring a change in your life, then you need to adopt better habits, and that includes a healthier diet. If you really change your habits and embrace a healthier diet, we can certainly tell you that you will see great and long-lasting advances.

Your food must be your medicine. This is a popular saying which expresses a lot of truth. If you want to make your life better, then you need to follow this. This way your life will be improved and you will be happier. You will have a lot more peace.

There you have it. This is what we wanted to share with you today.


A Neuropathy: Treating it The Right Way

A neuropathy can be a very complex and tough problem. The thing is that not for that you must give up, because there are ways by which you can ease your pain and have a much better time treating it.

On this article we will reveal to you the best saved secrets of doctors, who know how to treat this problem like none else. If you want to learn these secrets, then simply stay with us and see how we can help you in this opportunity, we will help you, take it for granted.

The Right Way Implies…

We strongly recommend you to follow the advice and indications from your doctor. Because he knows better than anyone else how to deal with this specific problem.

Now the thing is that you need to battle down this problem form other angles than your current treatment. What do we mean by this? It’s kind of simple: you need to fix the biggest blocks in your life.

Your life has two main pillars in our opinion: your food and your movement. If you don’t feed yourself properly and don’t move at all, then your current disease and problems will only worsen. There won’t be a way out of it, and you need to recognize it right now.

You need to follow the right way, and this is something that is recommended, one of the best websites out there for treatment of neuropathies naturally.

This simple advice will transform your life for better. If you eat better and move more, then you will bring your body and brain the resources they need to get that neuropathy out of your life. It’s as simple as that.

So here you have how to battle down that neuropathy of yours. What will you do now? Just go ahead and solve it.


Antibacterial Qualities Of Manuka Honey And The Different Types Of Diseases It Cures

Before we go into the detail of the diseases that Manuka honey is known to cure, let us look at the type of properties all honeys possess. Firstly, honey is a type of food which is mostly used as a sweetener. It is collected from beehives and is produced by a bee which is made by converting nectar into honey. This nectar is collected by the bees from all kinds of flowers of different plants and trees.

Honey, no matter of what type, is made in all countries and is widely trading between countries. There are many kinds of honeys which differ on the basis of their purity, taste, qualities, aroma, viscosity and color.

It is quite commonly known that honey is not only preferred by people because of its taste but also because of its antibacterial properties. In this article, we will discuss how Manuka honey is known to treat different types of diseases. Below we have compiled a list of diseases which are known to get better due to the consumption of Manuka honey so let us have a look at it.

Eczema and Acne
manuka-honeyAcne includes the little rashes or pimples that we see on our skin while eczema is a chronic skin condition and has different types. Number of people has reported that the inflammation on their skin was greatly reduced after they applied this particular honey on the affected area and the skin also became soft.

Bowel Condition
Daily consuming this honey is reported to dissipate symptoms of Irritating Bowel Syndrome and Crohn’s which means that it helps with the cramps, constipation etc.

Sinus and Tonsils
Users of Manuka honey have told that digested and applying this honey has greatly help them breathe without difficulty and also reduced their tonsils.


Get Teeth Whitening Pen to Whiten Teeth Quickly

Teeth don’t lose their shine on their own. It is mainly the food that we consume and our everyday habits that make our teeth yellower. Drinks like coffee and things like smoking are among those things that affect the teeth directly. Smoking not only has a damaging effect on our health but also ruins the look of your teeth. There are a number of substances that cause discoloration of your teeth. The best option sbiancare i denti is to quit smoking altogether to make your teeth white again but if you are not going to go for that option then using products that react with your teeth enamel and make them whiter is your next best option. If you are looking for a more permanent option then visit your dentist for the procedures that make your teeth permanently white. People usually don’t go for this option as it is comparatively more expensive and requires us to dedicate a set amount of time for the appointments. Alternatively, you can go for things like teeth brightening pens that give you immediate results right after you use the pen on your teeth. There are other products as well including whitening chewing gums that contain substances that react with your teeth covering and make them whiter. These products are much easier to use on a regular basis as compared to dentist appointments.

downloadAmong other things that we consume regularly that have a direct impact on our teeth color, carbonated drinks are also those substances that are responsible for yellow teeth. These contain corrosive ingredients acting on your teeth enamel. This is largely unknown to many people that not just food but medicines also have the same effect on teeth color as things like carbonated drinks etc. Antibiotics, specially, are among the medicines that give your teeth a yellow hue.